Wednesday, 16 September 2015


Teams , Partnership And Alliances

Collaboration system - supports the work of teams by facillitating teh sharing and flow of information.

Collaboration System 

An IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facillitating the sharing and flow of information.

2 categories of collaboration :

* Unstructured collaboration - includes documents exchange , shared whiteboards , discussion forums.

* Structured collaboration - involves shared participation in business processess such as workflow.

Knowledge Management System ( KM )

Involves capturing , classfying , evaluating , retrieving and sharing info assets in a way that provides context for effective decisions and actions.

Explicit and Tacit Knowledge

Content Management System ( CMS )

Provides tools to manage the creation , storage , editing and publication of info in a collabrative environment.

Working Wikis

Wikis - web-based tools that make it easy for users to add , remove and change online content.

Business wikis - collaborative web pages that allow users to edit documents and monitor the status of a project.

Workflow Management Systems

Groupware System

Software that supports team interactior and dynamics including calendaring and etc.


A set of interactive telecommunication that allow two or more locations to interact via two way video and audio transmissions simultaneously.

Web Conferences

Blends audio , video and document-sharing technologies to create virtual meeting rooms where people gather at a password web site.

Instant Messaging

Type of communications service that enables someone to create a kind of private chat room.

Chapter 14 : E-Busines

How do E-Commerce and E-Business differ ?

E-Commerce - the buying and selling of goods and serviices over the Internet.

E-Business - teh conducting of business on the internet icluding not only buying nd selling but also serving customers and collabrating with business partners.

E-Business Model

An Approach to conducting electronic business on the internet.

Business To Business

Electronic marketplace - interective business communities providing a central market where multiple buyers and sellers can engage.

Business To Customer

e-shop - a version of a retail store where customers can shop at any hour of the day without leaving their home.

e-mall - consists of a number e-shops.It serves as a gateway through which a visitor can access other e-shops.

Consumer To Business

The demand for this will increase over the next few years due to customer's desire for greater convenience and lower price.

Consumer To Consumer

Online auctions consist of :
- electronic auctions
- forward auction
- reverse auction


Web mashup - a web site or web apps that uses content from more than one source to create a completely new services.


At the heart of all ERP systems is a database, when a users enters info in one module, its immedietly and automatically updated throughout the entire system.

Evolution Of ERP

Intergrating SCM , CRM and ERP

Intergration Tools

Middleware - several different types of software which sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software apps.

Enterprise Application Integration Middleware - packages together commonly used functionally which reduced the time.


The Evolution Of CRM 

CRM reporting technology - help organizations identify their customer across other applications.

CRM analysis technologies - help organization segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers.

CRM predicting technologies - help organization make prediction regarding custmer behaviour.

Operational CRM - supports traditional transactions processing for day - to - dayfront office operations or system that deal directly with the customers.

Analytical CRM - supports back-office operations and stratergic analysis and includes all systems that dont deal directly with the customers.


Basics SCM

Organizations must embrace technologies that can effectively manage supply chain

Information Technology Role in the Supply Chain

Factors Driving SCM

1. Visibility

 -  the ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain.

2. Consumer Behaviour

 -  comapanies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demands through supply chain         enhances.

3. Competition

 -  Supply Chain Planning uses advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency     of the supply chain.

4. Speed

SCM Success Factors


Model – a simplified representation or abstraction of reality

Transaction Processing Systems ( TPS )

TPS – the basic business system that seves the operational level in an organization.

Online Transaction Processing ( OLTP )

OLTP – the capturing of transaction and event information using technology.

Online Analytical Processing ( OLAP )

OLAP – the manipulation of information to create business intelligence in support of stratergic decision making.

Decision Support System

- models info to support managers and business professionals during the decision making process.

3 quantitative models used by DSS include :
 Sensitivity analysis – the study of impact that changes in one parts of the model have on other    parts of the model.
 What-If analysis – checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution.  

   Goal-seeking analysis – finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as desired level of output.

Executive Information System ( EIS )

A specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization.

Digital Dashboard – intergrates information from multiple components and presents it in a unified display.

Artifical Intelligence

Simulates human intelligence such as the ability to reason and learn.

4 common Artifical Intelligence :

1. Expert system - computerized advisory programs that imiate the reasoning processess of experts in     solving problems.

2. Neutral Network - attempts to emulate the way the human brain works

3. Genetic Algorithm - an artifical intelligent systems that mimics the evolutionary.

4. Intelligent Agent - special purposed knowledge based info system that accomplishes specific tasks     on behalf of the users.

Cluster Analysis

A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close as together.

Association Detection

Reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the info.

Statistical Analysis

Performs such functions as information correlation and varience analysis.


Data Warehouse Fundamentals

- a logical collection of info from many different types of operation database.

ETL ( Extarction , Transformation , Loading )

- a process that extracts info from internal and external database,transform the info using a common set of enterprise and loads the info into a data warehouse

Data Mining – the process of analyzing data to extract info not offered by the raw data alone.

Data Mining Tools – uses a variety of techniques to find pattern and relationships in large volumes of info.

Information cleansing or scrubbing – a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent or incomplete info.

Business Intelligence

- information that people use to support their decision making efforts.

Principle BI enablers include :
- technology
- people

- culture


Database – Maintains info about various types of objects ,events,people and places.

Database models include :

Hierarchical Database Model 

Network Database Model

Relation Database Model

Entities and Attributes

Entities -  a person , place , thing or event about which info is stored.

Attributes – characteristics or properties of an entity class.

Keys and Relationsips

Primary key -  a field that uniquely identifies a given entity in atable.

Foreign Key – a primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts.

Relation Database Advantage
-       -   Increase flexibility
-        -  Increased scalability and performance
-       - Reduces info redundancy
Database Mangement System

Data Driven Web Sites
        An interactive web site kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of customer.

Advantage :

1. Development
-    allows the owner to make changes at any time.
2. Content Management
-    Requires a programmer to make updates.
3. Future Expandability
-   Enables the site to grow faster than would be possible with a static site.
4. More Efficient
-   Computers are excellent at keeping volumes of information intact.

Intergrating Information among Multiple Databases

Intergration – allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other.

1. Forward Intergration
-   takes info entered into a given system and sends it auto to all downstream system and processes.

2. Backward Intergration
-   takes info entered into agiven system and sends it auto to all upstream systems and processes.

CHAPTER 6 : Valuing Organizational Information

Organization Information

The Value of Transactional and Analytical Information

The Value Of Timely Information

Timeliness is an aspect of information that depends on the situation
Real Time Information – immediate , up – to – date information
Real Time System – Provides real-time information in response to query requests.

The Value of Quality Information
Business decisions are only as good as the quality of the information used to make the decision

Characteristics of high-quality information include :
·         Accuracy
·         Completeness
·         Consistency
·         Uniqueness
·         Timeliness

Understanding the Costs of Poor Information
Primary Sources :
1. Online customers intentionally enter inaccurate information to protect their privacy.
2. Information from different systems have different entry standards and formats.
3. Call Center operators enter abbreviated or erroneous information by accident or to save time.
4. Third party and external information contains errors.

-          Inability to accurately track customers
-          Difficulty identifying selling opportunities
-          Inability to identify valuable customers.

CHAPTER 5 : Organizational Structures that Support Stratergic Initiatives

Organizational Structures
-          Organizational employees must work closely together to develop stratergic iniyiatives.
-          Ethics and security are two fundamental building blocks that organization must base their business upon.

IT Roles and Responsibilities

Recent IT related stratergic positions :
1. Chief Information Officer ( CIO )
-   Overseas all uses of IT and ensures the stratergic alignment of IT with business goals and objective.
Broad CIO functions include :
Manager – ensuring the delivery of all IT is in line time and within budget.
Leader – ensuring the stratergic vision of IT is in line with the stratergic vision of the organization.
Communicator – building and maintaining strong executive relationships.

2. Chief Technology Officer ( CTO )
-   responsible for ensuring the throughout,speed,accuracy,availability and reliability of IT.

3. Chief Security Officer ( CSO )
-   responsible for ensuring the security of IT system.

4. Chief Privacy Officer ( CPO )
-  responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information.

5. Chief Knowledge Officer ( CKO )
-  responsible for collecting,maintaining and distributing the organization’s knowledge.

The Gap Between Business Personnel and IT Personnel
Business Personnel possess expertise in functional areas such as marketing and sales while IT Personnel have the technological expertise.

Meaning : the principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people.In other meaning privacy is means the right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your own personal possessions and not to be observed without your consent.
Issues :
1. Intellectual property
-   Intangible creative work that is embodied in physical form.
2. Copyright
-   The legal protection afforded an expression of an idea such as songs.
3. Counterfeit Software
-   Software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.

Organizational info is intellectual capital that must be protected
Information Security – the protection of info from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization.

Monday, 31 August 2015

Chapter 4 - Measuring The Succes Of Strategic Initiatives

Key Performance Indicator ( KPI ) 
 - measures that are tied to business drivers

- detailed measures that feed KPIs

Efficiency IT metrics
*measrues the performance of the IT system itself including throughput , speed and availability.

Effectiveness of IT metrics
*measrues the impact IT has on business processes and activities including customer satisfaction,conversion rates and sell through increases.

Benchmarking ( Baselining metrics )

- process of continuousy measuring system results . comparing those results to optimal system performance and identytifying steps and procedured to improve system performance.

Efficiency IT metrics

1. Throughput - the amount of info that can travel through a system at a point.
2, Transaction speed - the amount of time a system takes to perform a transaction.
3. System availability - the number of hours a system is available for uers.
4. Information accuracy - the extent to which sysytem generates the correct results
5. Web traffic - includes a host of benchmarks
6. Response time - the time it takes to respond to user interactions.

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* effectiveness of IT metrics


* abandoned registrations
* abandoned shopping cards
* click-through
* conversion rate 
* cost - per - thousand
* page exposures
* total hits
* unique visitors

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Sunday, 30 August 2015


Organizations can undertake high-profile stratergic initiatives including :

- Supply Chain Management ( SCM )
- Customer Relationship Management ( CRM )
- Business Process Reengineering ( BPR )
- Enterprise Resource Planning ( EPR )

Supply Chain Management ( SCM )

- Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability,

4 BASIC components of supply chain management include :

1. Supply chain stratergy - stratergy of managing all resources to meet customer demand.
2. Supply chain partner - partners throughout the supply chain that delivers finished products , raw                                              materials and services.
3. Supply chain operation - schedule for production activities.
4. Supply chain logistics - product delivery process
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  Effective and efficient SCM system can enable organization to :
- Decrease the power of its buyers
- Increase its own supplier power
- Increase switching costs to reduce the threat of substitute products or services
- Create entry barriers thereby reducing the threat of new entrants
- Increase efficiences while seeking a competitive advantage through cost leadership.

Customer Relationship Management ( CRM )

* Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty & retention & organization's profitability.

CRM can enable an organization to :

- identify types of customers
- design individual customer marketing campaigns
- understand customers buying behaviour

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Business Process Reengineering

* Business Process means a standardized set of activities that accomplish a specific task , such as processing customer's orders.

* Business Process Reenginering means the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between entreprises.

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Enterprise Resource Planning

* intergrates all departments and functions tthroughout an organization into a single IT system so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide info on all business operations.

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